自动驾驶与无人驾驶 傻傻分不清楚

来源:搜狐网 2015-12-24 08:48:00

稍早,才看到美国彭博社(Bloomberg)的报导传出Google有意把无人驾驶车部门,独立出来成为Alphabet集团的一间子公司。甚至将推出和叫车软件Uber一样的业务:共乘(但现在Uber好像不是共乘的概念)。

却在另一个报导看到:Google的无人驾驶车是否能上路,还是未知数。因为加州车辆管理局(CaliforniaDepartmentofMotorVehicles,以下简称DMV)说无人驾驶车内要有驾驶(这是鬼故事吗?)

原来,加州车辆管理局于16日发布一项草案意见征询的公告。这项草案为《自动驾驶车的布署细则(Draftautonomousvehicledeploymentregulations)》,目前正开放征询大众有关自动驾驶车未来将于加州上路的意见。

加州车辆管理局的局长JeanShiomoto提到:“这个细则最大的目标,是要确保自动驾驶车的安全问题,以及保障同样是用路人的用路安全。”的确,自动驾驶车的安全一直是被诟病的地方,例如当有车祸发生,责任究竟在谁?而Google也致力于解决此类问题,并替相关技术申请了专利(请参阅:Google申请车辆沟通专利,欲改善无人驾驶车安全问题)。

细究DMV所公告的《自动驾驶车的布署细则》草案,提到以下四大方向:

制造商认证/第三方检验

制造商将须对自动驾驶车的性能及安全要求做出证明。另外,更将有第三方检测单位对其进行各项数据的检测,藉以做出客观且公正的认证。

车辆内需有执照的驾驶

车辆内需配置有一名持有执照的操作者,且能在紧急情况时做出相关处置措施。就无人驾驶车(Driverlessvehicles)的部份,将先被本草案排除在外。未来,局方将对其做出专属规范。

三年的布署许可

制造商将被同意3年的布署许可,且将要求它们定期提交车辆性能安全的报告。这项临时许可措施,是为了未来加州全面允许自动驾驶车上路的前置规范。在整个许可期间所搜集的实际数据,将被做为未来订定正式规范的参考资料。

隐私与网络安全要求

如果制造商有搜集相关驾驶数据,那么将被强制要求提供。如若收集其他额外数据,那么需经过事先批准。自动驾驶车更需配置有自我诊断的功能,藉以防范网络攻击或未经许可的入侵,更甚者,需主动发出警示给驾驶。

从上述第二点来看,或许我们都将自动驾驶和无人驾驶混为一谈了,谁说配备自动驾驶的车辆内一定没有驾驶(人)呢?而加州车辆管理局公告的这项细则,目前来看,显然是针对车内还是有人存在驾驶座位上的自动驾驶车!(人家有说,真正的无人驾驶车将另行规范)。

或许,在讨论科技厂的无人驾驶车、自动驾驶车,是不是将被哪一项规范限制之前。我们要先好好定义一下AutonomousVehicles和DriverlessVehicles的差别到底是什么?

你问我答案是什么,我只想说我也被搞混了!

以下为DMV的公告原文:

FORIMMEDIATERELEASE

December16,2015

DMVReleasesDraftRequirementsforPublicDeploymentofAutonomousVehiclesStateSeeksPublicCommentonDraftDocument

Sacramento—TheCaliforniaDepartmentofMotorVehicles(DMV)hasreleaseddraftautonomousvehicledeploymentregulationsforpubliccomment.Thisisthenextsteptowardallowingthepublictooperateself-drivingcarsonCaliforniaroadwaysinthefuture.

“Theprimaryfocusofthedeploymentregulationsisthesafetyofautonomousvehiclesandthesafetyofthepublicwhowillsharetheroadwiththesevehicles,”saidDMVDirectorJeanShiomoto.“Wewanttogetpublicinputonthesedraftregulationsbeforeweinitiatetheformalregulatoryrulemakingprocess.”

ThedraftregulationsareintendedtopromotethecontinueddevelopmentofautonomousvehicletechnologyinCalifornia,whiletransitioningmanufacturersfromtestingtodeploymentofself-drivingcars.Upcomingpublicworkshopsareintendedtogatherinputfromindustry,consumerandpublicinterestgroups,academics,aswellasthepublic,tohelpimprovethequalityoftheregulationsthatwilleventuallybeadoptedfortheoperationofself-drivingvehicles.

SenateBill1298(Chapter570;Statutesof2012)requiredtheDMVtoadoptregulationsgoverningboththetestingandtheuseofautonomousvehiclesonpublicroadways.InSeptember2014,DMVannouncedtheregulationsformanufacturerstotestthevehicles.Today’sdraftregulationsaddressthefutureuseofautonomousvehiclesbythepublic.

Thedraftregulationsaredesignedtoaddresscomplexquestionsrelatedtovehiclesafety,certification,operatorresponsibilities,licensingandregistration,privacy,andcyber-security.Keyaspectsofthedraftregulationsinclude:

ManufacturerCertification/ThirdPartyTesting:

Manufacturerswillcertifytotheircompliancewithspecificautonomousvehiclesafetyandperformancerequirements.Inaddition,athird-partytestingorganizationwillberequiredtoconductavehicledemonstrationtesttoprovideanindependentperformanceverificationofthevehicle.

LicensedDriverRequiredinVehicle:

Alicensedoperatorwillberequiredtobepresentinsidethevehicleandbecapableoftakingcontrolintheeventofatechnologyfailureorotheremergency.Driverlessvehiclesareinitiallyexcludedfromdeployment.Thedepartmentwilladdresstheuniquesafety,performance,andequipmentrequirementsassociatedwithfullyautonomousvehiclesinsubsequentregulatorypackages.

Three-YearDeploymentPermit:

Manufacturerswillbeapprovedforathree-yeardeploymentpermit,whichwillrequirethemtoregularlyreportontheperformance,safety,andusageofautonomousvehicles.ThisprovisionalpermitisacriticalfirststeptowardsthefulldeploymentofautonomousvehiclesinCalifornia.Datacollectedthroughoutthepermittermwillprovideanopportunitytoevaluatethesafetyandreal-worldperformanceofautonomousvehiclesandinformsubsequentregulatoryactionsbythedepartment.

PrivacyandCyber-SecurityRequirements:

Manufacturersmustdisclosetotheoperatorifinformationiscollected,otherthantheinformationneededtosafelyoperatethevehicle.Manufacturerswillberequiredtoobtainapprovaltocollectthisadditionalinformation.Autonomousvehicleswillbeequippedwithself-diagnosticcapabilitiesthatdetectandrespondtocyber-attacksorotherunauthorizedintrusions,alerttheoperator,andallowforanoperatoroverride.

(本文由智由博集授权转载;首图来源:Flickr/AutomobileItaliaCCBY2.0)

点击查看原文

相关链接